Wednesday, January 12, 2011
IDENTIFICATION OF NATURAL ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN LEAVES jessamine (Brucea javanica (L.) Mess) BY: SUSI ANNARIA CHEMICAL EDUCATION 66986/2005 NR
Jessamine plants (Brucea javanica (L.) Mess) is widely spread throughout Indonesia, therefore it has many names, such as whey - whey, tambursipago, tamban jail jessamine (Sumatra), drums pencang, kipades, trawalot (Java), tambara Marica, Marica amber (Sulawesi) and nagas (Maluku) (Ministry of Health, 1985) Description: Tall shrubs, erect, very bitter, high 1 to 2.5 m. The composition of odd pinnate leaves; child 5-13 leaves, mostly dealing, child elongated oval shaped leaves lanceolate, pointed tip, serrated edge beringgit, base rounded or pointed, hairy from 5.5 to 17.5 times from 2 to 7.5 cm . Flowers 1 or 2, in the arrangement of long narrow panicle 2-30 cm. Jewelry petal flower form; very small segment of eyelids, inverted oval shape ovate, 0.75-1 mm. The crown has 5 petals, elongated shape, blunt, rarely hairy, along the edge of berkelenjar, green purple. Stamens as many as petals, anthers not present in female flowers. Rudimentary pistil in male flowers, bertaju 4, the interest in pairs of 2 or flower stalk female ovaries and pistil 4, loose, thickening of the base of the flower obvious bulge. Elongated rounded stone fruit, length 8mm. Flowering time from January to December. This plant can live in areas with a height of 0.5 to 550 m above sea level. More or less found 6 species of plants that grow in Africa. In Indonesia, many grown in Java and Madura, which is usually found in bushes, on the banks of the river, teak forests, young secondary forest, and as a hedge plant.
Habitat: Usually found in bushes, on the banks of the river, teak forests, young secondary forest, and as a hedge plant. This plant can live in areas with a height of 0.5 to 550 m above sea level.
Nature and Benefits It was bitter cold in nature, poisonous (toxic), into the large intestine meridian. Savor the fruit can mmebersihkan macassar heat and toxins, stop bleeding (hemostatis), kill parasites, antisendi and antimalarial.
Used Parts The part used is fruit. After the fruit is collected, the hard part is removed to take the contents. Besides fruits, leaves and roots also efficacious sebagaiobat
Indication Fruit is used for treatment: • Malaria • Dysentery Amoeba, chronic diarrhea due to infection Trichomonas sp., • Kaputihan • Hemorrhoids • Worms • papilloma of the larynx, stomach, rectum, lung, cervix and skin The roots are used for the treatment of • Malaria • Food Karacunan • Fever The leaves are used to overcome • lumbago How to Use For drugs taken, minced 1.5 to 2 g macassar fruit content (approximately 10-15 seeds) until smooth, then put into capsules. This potion drunk after a meal. Do it 2-3 times a day.
External use is used to cure warts and fish eye disease in the leg. Use of this herb should be careful to not hit the surrounding normal skin. The leaves are finely ground macassar fruit can be used to compress the swollen body part, due to hit or beaten (bruise) hard object. In addition to cure disease, this herb can be used to drive the locusts.
Example Usage Dysentery Amoeba Milled 10-15 makassarese fruit until smooth, then put into capsules. Drink this mixture all at once after a meal. Do it 3 times a day for 7-10 days.
Dysentery, urine, feces, bleeding Milled 25 pieces macassar heat until smooth (makzimal 50 pieces), and enter into the capsule. Drink this mixture once with a solution of sugar water stone.
Malaria Take the contents of the fruit macassar approximately 10 pieces, then milled until smooth. Enter into the capsule, then drink as well. Do 3 times daily for 3 days. Furthermore, the dose reduced by half and drink within 5 days. Wash the fruit macassar 15-20 g root, then cut into pieces as needed. Boil in three cups of water until the remaining one cup. Once cool, strain and filter drinking water ready to drink. Do it twice a day, each 1 / 2 cup.
Hemorrhoids 7 pieces macassar milled until smooth. Enter into a capsule, drink once.
Whitish Enter the 20 pieces into the pot soil macassar or pan-mail. Add 400 cc airbersih, then boiled until the remaining 100 cc. After chilling this herb can be used to wash the vagina intercourse (vagina). The trick was to use cooking spray water sprayer (sprayer). Herb that is used for each time the use of 20-40 cc. If keputihanya light, spraying is done only once. But if keputihanya weight, need to be repeated for 2-3 days.
Notes Do not use excessive doses. If taken, the fruit can stimulate the digestive tract macassar danmenimbulkan symptoms of poisoning. This was caused by the substance contained therein kosamine glycosides. In small doses, fruit macassar efficacious as a laxative, smooth the spending of bile to the intestine (kolagoga), prevent blood clotting and eradicate intestinal worms, in contrast to the large doses can cause acute poisoning. The signs shown by the slow process of respiration, limb paralysis, vomiting, diarrhea and coma which can eventually cause death. If chronic toxicity occurs can cause liver and kidney damage.
Pregnant women and children were forbidden to drink fruit macassar medicinal herbs. In addition, fruit macassar contraindicated in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, gastritis, liver disease and severe kidney disease.
Abroad, the ingredients of this drug has been made in the form of capsules, liquid medicines and injecting drugs. This herb can be used for treating cancer. The treatment is done by drinking a liquid emulsion, using injection or using a liquid emulsion which dissolved into the liquid infusion. In cervical and breast cancer, is usually given a local injection, whereas in gastrointestinal tumors and lung given intramuscular injection. Fruit macassar a strong antiseptic and amoeba, micro-organisms causing malaria, intestinal parasites in the cavity and microorganisms that cause infections in the vagina intercourse (vaginal) Composition: Seeds of bitter substances, triterpene, sterin, wax, phenolic compounds (tannic substances). Bitter substance contained in the seed Brucea javanica L. Meer consists of bruseantin, bruseantinol, brusein A, B, C, D, dehidrobusein A, brusatol, yadanziolid, yadanziolid A, yadanziolid C, yadanziolid F, bitter compounds like cafeteria-6-on.
2.2 Secondary Metabolites
2.2.1 Alkaloids Alkaloids generally contain at least one nitrogen atom which is alkaline and is part of heterocyclic ring. Most alkaloids shaped crystalline solid with a specific melting point or have a range of decomposition. Alkaloids can also take the form of amorphous or liquid. Today thousands of alkaloid has been found and with a variety of unique structure, ranging from the simplest to the most difficult. Alkaloids are nitrogen heterocyclic compounds. One example of the first alkaloid was useful in the medical field is an isolated morphine in 1805. Diterpenoid alkaloid isolated from plants have antimicrobial properties. Solamargine, a glikoalkaloid from the plant Solanum Berri khasianum may be useful against HIV infection and intestinal infections associated with AIDS. In 1896, Meyer - Lexikon provide restrictions alkaloids as follows: "Alkaloids occur in plant characteristics and are often known for their physiological activity. Alkaloids containing C, H and N and O atoms typically contain Alkaloid compounds are found mainly in roots, seeds, wood and leaves from growing - plants. Alkaloid compound can be viewed as the result of metabolism of the plant or can be useful as a backup for the biosynthesis of proteins. Uses for the plant alkaloid is a patron of pest attack, boosters grow - plant hormones and regulatory work. Alkaloids are very important in the pharmaceutical industry because most alkaloids have physiological effects. In general, alkaloids are not found in gymnosperms, nails - ferns, mosses and low plants. Distribution alkoloid: a. Based on the different types of chromophore groups, such as indole alkaloids, isokuinolin or kuinolin.
b. Based plant origin were first discovered, for example, tobacco alkaloids c. Based on the predominant type of bonding in these alkaloids.
Based on the literature, it is known that almost all the alkaloids in nature has a biological activity and provide a specific physiological effects on living things. So it is not surprising if people from the beginning until now always look for drugs of various plant extracts. The function of alkaloids in the plant itself has so far not known for certain, some experts have revealed that the alkaloid is estimated as the protector of plants from pests and diseases, plant growth regulators, or as bases for maintaining mineral ion balance. Challenges in research in the field of alkaloids, more and more interesting and complex level of difficulty. This is based on the phenomenon that the number of alkaloid levels in plants are in a very few (less than 1%) but the alkaloid content of above 1% are also frequently encountered as in the skin that contains 10-15% quinine alkaloids and alkaloid content of Senecio riddelii until 18%. In addition to a small degree, the alkaloid also be isolated from a complex mixture of compounds. The process of isolation, purification, characterization, and determination of this structure requires specialized knowledge and skills which would require a long time to depth.
2.2.2 Flavonoids Flavonoid compounds can be described as a series C6C3C6 means carbon skeleton consisting of two C6 groups (substituted benzene rings) connected by a three carbon aliphatic chain. Flavonoids have unique properties that is a very sharp odor, is largely a yellow pigment, soluble in water and organic solvents, easily decomposed at high temperature. Golangan flavonoid compounds can be described as a sequence of C6-C3-C6. That is, the framework consists of two clusters karbonya C6 (substituted benzene ring) connected by a three-carbon aliphatic chain. Flavonoids are frequently found srbagai glycosides. Flavonoids mancangkup many of the most umun pigment and contained in the entire world of plants ranging from fungus to angiospermae. In higher plants, flavonoids contained in the vegetative and the flower. As flavonoid flower pigments play a role in bird and insect pollinators menerik interest. The mixture of flavonoids can be found in fruits such as berries, apples, garlic, red wine, tea, green grapes, oranges, lemons, cherries, vegetables, green, blue and green algae and many others. The role of flavonoids as it may hinder the initiation phase of blood vessel constriction or atherosclerosis. In the end can reduce the risk of coronary heart attack and stroke. Certain flavonoids are the active component tumbuha used traditionally to treat liver dysfunction, silimirin of Silybum marianum is used to protect the liver cell membrane and inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins, inhibition of the reaction on mikosom hidrogsilasi. In the food flavonoids may decrease platelet aggregation and reduce blood clotting. In the skin, flavonoids inhibit bleeding. Xanton and oligomeric flavonoids in foods have antihypertensive effects by inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme. Flavonoids have a number of usability. First, to plants, namely as a regulator plants, regulating photosynthesis, work antimiroba and antivirus. Second, to man, namely as an antibiotic against cancer and kidney disease, inhibit bleeding. Third, to insects, namely as the attraction of insects to pollinate. Fourth, other uses are as an active ingredient in the manufacture of botanical insecticides from sweet orange peel (Arda Dinata).
Steroids are lipid classes that have the characteristics of this type of union structure of carbon rings. Steroids do not contain fatty acids or glycerol, and therefore can not undergo saponification. Steroids include four classes, namely cholesterol, hormones, adrenokortikoid, sexual hormones, and bile acids. Cholesterol is found in all organisms and is the starting material for the formation of bile acids, steroid hormones, and vitamin D. Although cholesterol is essential for living organisms, but has implications for the formation of 'plek' at the artery wall (a proese called arteosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries), it can even cause a blockage. This phenomenon is important especially in the vessels that supply blood to the heart. Blockage of these vessels causing heart damage, which in turn can lead to death from a heart attack. Basic steroid nucleus together with the core lanosterol and other tetrasiklik triterpenoid, but only at the methyl group attached to the ring system. side chain of eight - of carbon contained in the lanosterol is also present in many plant steroids have one or two additional carbon atoms. The name "sterol" is used specifically for steroids alcohol, but because practically all plant steroids in the form of alcohol with the hydroxyl group at C3, are often all called sterols.
Terpenoid compound is a compound that also contained isometric hydrocarbons in fat / essential oils (essential oils), which is a type of fat that is essential for the body. Terpenoid substances help the body in the process of organic synthesis and recovery of the body's cells. Fragrance or odor from the plant caused by the essential oil fraction. Oil is a secondary metabolite that is rich in compounds with structure isopren. They called this village and there in the form diterpen, triterpene, tetraterpen, hemiterpen, and sesquiterpen. When the compound contains an additional element is usually oxygen, they called terpenoids. Examples of common terpenoids are methanol and camphor (monoterpenes), and famesol and artemisin (sesquiterpenoid). Based on the number of carbon atoms, terpenoids are grouped into monoterpenes (C = 10), sesquiterpenes (C = 15), diterpen (C = 20), triterpene (C = 30), tetraterpen (C = 40), and politerpen (C> 40) . a. Monoterpenoids Monoterpenoids apparently formed from two isoprene units and usually have ten carbon atoms, although there are examples of steps that apparently formed compounds based on these general principles but these compounds lose one or more carbon atoms.
b. Sesquiterpenoids C15 sesquiterpenoids are compounds, usually considered to be derived from three isoprene units. As there are monoterpenoids sesquiterpenoids as components of essential oils are steam distilled, and was instrumental in giving flavor to the fruit and flowers as we know it. In terms of physiology, one of the most important thing is monocyclic sesquiterpenoids absisat acids, hormones that counteract the effects of gibberellins and inhibit the growth of buds.
Diterpenoid C20 is a compound which is officially regarded (with some pengeculiaan) derived from four isoprenoid units. Because of the high boiling point, usually diterpenoid not found in plant essential oils although some diterpenoid a low boiling point as possible. These compounds are found in amber, in the form of gum exudate, and in a high boiling point fractions after distillation of essential oils. For example, rosin remaining after the distillation of this village is rich in pine diterpenoid.
d. Triterpenoid Because C25 sesterpenoid very rare in higher plants, although there are (80), there is increased complexity if we pay attention to the diterpenoid compounds ranging from C30 triterpenoids. Triterpenoids of the most important and most widespread is the largest pentasiklik triterpenoids. These compounds found in plants but the most common seprimitif in plant seeds, free, and as glycosides.
Saponin is a type of glikosid that have characteristics permissibility aqueous solution of foaming when shaken. Strong hemolytic saponin affects upwards of red blood cells. There are two types namely steroidal saponins (found in many plants monokotilidon) and triterpenoid (in plants dikotilidon). There are two types of saponin, triterpenoid glycoside glycoside alcohol and certain steroid structures having spiroketal side chain. Both types of saponin is soluble in water and ethanol but insoluble in ether. Aglikonnya, called sapogenin obtained by acid hydrolysis in the atmosphere or the use of enzyme hydrolysis, without the sugar solubility characteristics similar to characteristics of other sterols. Based on these properties, saponin compounds have a very extensive use, among others: 1. Pest control shrimp. 2. As detergents in the textile industry. 3. Forming foam in fire extinguishers. 4. Forming foam in shampoos. 5. In the pharmaceutical industry. 6. In photography.
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Time Frame This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Chemistry, State UNP on Friday, 23 November 2007. 3.2 Research Sample The sample used was leaf jessamine (Brucea javanica (L.) Merr.) CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Results Reagent TEST RESULTS
Alkaloids Culvenor - Fitzgerald Mayer (-) nodes Wagner (-) nodes Dragendorf (-) nodes Flavonoids Shinoda test / sianidin test (-) chocolate Steroids / Terpenoid Lieberman - Burchard (-) Terpenoids (+) Steroids blue Saponin Foam Test (-) No stable foam Table 4.1
Identification is carried out on leaf jessamine, among others: a. Identification of Alkaloids In this identification, leaf jessamine (samples) were weighed as much as 4 grams of fresh, finely chopped and crushed in a mortar with the help of sand. Sand used for rapid sample fine, then the sample plus chloroform and crushed again to form a paste, then added 10 mL of ammonia solution - chloroform 0.05 N and the sample crushed again. Then mix in the filter into a dry tube, plus 5 mL of 2N H2SO4 and shaken strongly. Solution was left in place, forming two layers of the upper layer is a layer of sulfuric acid and the bottom layer is a layer of chloroform .. using a pipette drops that were given cotton on the edges, a layer of sulfuric acid were taken and put into a small tube.
The filtrate was divided into three separately tested with 3 reagent. The first tube tested with Mayer's reagent, visible filtrate remains clear; second tube was tested with a reagent Wagner also seen the filtrate remained clear, and the third tube with the reagent Dragendorf, looks filtrate with the same color that is clear. In theory, a positive test alkaloids from the third reagent is the formation of white precipitate / cloudy for Mayer reagent, the formation of brown sediment for Wagner and the formation of precipitation reagent to reagent Dragendorf orange. Based on the theory shows that the obtained test negative, it means that the sample did not have any alkaloids.
b. Identification of Flavonoids
In this identification, leaf jessamine weighed as much as 0.5 grams, chopped finely and extracted with 5 mL of methanol and dipansakan for 5 minutes in a test tube, then extract plus 5 drops of concentrated hydrochloric acid and a little magnesium powder. Of identification is obtained brown solution. Means test negative obtained, because based on the theory of positive tests of flavonoids is the color change to pink / red or yellow.
c. Identification of steroids / Terpenoid
In this identification, 3 drops of chloroform layers in the alkaloid test plate is placed on drops of acetic anhydride and allowed to dry, then add 3 drops of concentrated H2SO4. Obtained from tests conducted a blue solution which showed a positive test, because based on the theory of positive steroid test was the emergence of blue. From the results obtained, identification was done wrong because it is not in accordance with the literature found on a literature review (Chapter 2), the jessamine leaves contain triterpenoid. Triterpenoid positive test is the emergence of red-orange or purple color. This error may be caused by several possibilities, which is less precise, less net equipment performed and errors in the observed color. d. Identification of Saponins In this identification, the samples were dried chopped fine, put into test tubes and added with distilled water, then boiled for 2-3 minutes, cooled and shaken strong - strong. Tests conducted showed that the samples did not contain saponin which is indicated by the absence of a stable foam for 5 minutes.
5.1 Conclusion From the identification made, the conclusion:
1. Jessamine leaves can be used as a drug because it contains secondary metabolites, or better known as bioactive compounds.
2. Secondary metabolites contained the wild jessamine leaves are triterpenoids, but from experiments jessamine leaves contain steroids as indicated by the emergence of blue and errors that may occur is a mistake in using the tool, less scrupulous in observing changes in color and lack of concentration. 3. Identification is carried out are: alkaloids: a negative test for reagent mayer, Wagner and dragendorf. Flavonoids: a negative test steroids: a positive test Terpenoid: negative test Saponins: negative test
1. So that readers can use jasmine leaves as one of medicinal plants
2. Provides information on how to identify secondary metabolites in leaves of jasmine.
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