Presentasi oleh Penulis Juli 2009 di Sahid Jaya Hotel Jakarta
Sumatera merupakan satu dari beberapa pulau terbesar dunia yang kaya dengan berbagai barang galian, seperti minyak, gas bumi dan batu bara berperan penting dalam perekonomian bangsa Indonesia, sedangkan flora dan faunanya dengan keragaman dan keunikan yang khas juga merupakan aset yang tak ternilai harganya.
Topografi Pulau Sumatera
|Koordinat||0°00′ LU 102°00′ BT|
Jam Gadang Bukittinggi
1) Dayar Arbain, Satu Dekade Penelitian Kimia Tumbuhan Obat Sumatera Makalah, 1992 Jurusan Farmasi UNAND.
2) D. Lewis, West Australian, May, 24, 1991.
3) Sjamsul Arifin Ahmad, Ilmu Kimia Sebagai Ujung Tombak Dalam Pemanfaatan Hutan Tropis Secara Aman dan Berkelanjutan Makalah, 1992, Jurusan Kimia ITB.
4) Van Steenis, C.G.G.J., Flora Malesiana, vol. I, cxlv, (P. Noordhoff Ltd. Hearlem, 1950).
5) W.Meijer, Indonesia Circle, 1982, 25
Prof. Dr. Dayar Arbain, Apt.
Professor Dayar Arbain, Apt., is a Professor of Pharmacy/Organic Chemistry (University of Western Australia, 1986) and senior lecturer from Pharmaceutical Department of Faculty of Farmacy, University of Andalas, Padang, Indonesia. I have been one of his students more than 19 years since I became a student in the same department in 1989.
Since 1994, He has been my supervisor for my first degree in Pharmacy, in 1999 he supervised me for completing my master degree in Natural Products Chemistry and 2004 he supported and supervised for my PhD degree at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia
I hope his advised, guidance and collaboration will continue forever. Insya Allah.
Pekanbaru, March 23, 2007
SUMATRA MEDICINAL PLANTS
by Tarmizi, B. Sc, S. Pd
Talking about plants, of course we have to imagine that it consists of plant roots, stems, branches and twigs (if any), leaf and flower or fruit. 'm Drug material or substance which is inserted into the body with certain doses to alter a biological or chemical processes.
Sumatra is one of several of the world's largest island with a rich variety of mineral goods, such as oil, natural gas and coal play an important role in the economy of Indonesia, while the flora and fauna with the diversity and uniqueness that is also typical of an invaluable asset.
Geographically, Sumatra on the equator with a tropical climate, which is only found in the rainy and dry seasons. This situation is an ideal habitat for diverse species of tropical flora and fauna. Richness of tropical forests and natural resources
According to Prof. Dr. Sjamsul Arifin Ahmad, Professor of Chemical majors ITB, on earth there are 5 to 30 million species of life, a definite number is not known. One and a half million species have been known, 54% found in tropical forests, in the "seven-state mega-diversity", including Indonesia. Many species are found in tropical forests are not found in any hemisphere. On one hectare of forest of Borneo discovered 700 species of trees. Species diversity may arise because of geographic barriers, water, mountains and sebagianya. Because of the islands to accommodate the unique local species.
Since the beginning of "civilization" has been used as a source of plant food, clothing, energy, and source of chemicals for drugs, insecticides, perfumes, dyes and other purposes. Twenty-five percent of all trafficked drugs derived from these plants are tropical plants. Many tropical forest tree species has not been utilized. 1400 species of tropical forest the plants may be useful for treatment of cancer.
Meijer (1982) suggests that the Sumatran is very rich in species of plants which are found in the forest, richer than the flora of Java and Sulawesi, and balanced with the flora of Borneo and New Guinea. Experts agree that the tropical forest is the largest repository of organic compounds in the world.
Knowledge of the use of plants, especially as poison and medicine is taught only in close family or person who is trusted and is not taught haphazardly on others, because this knowledge is deemed to have strategic value. Usually sipemilik this knowledge in the community known as the shaman or the handler and has a well-respected position.
Prof. Dr. Dayar Arbain, Senior Lecturer Department of Pharmacy UNAND desert, had begun to inventory the plants and phytochemical survey since 1982. he admits that it's not easy to draw a correlation of plant secondary metabolites that can be detected by traditional usage. The difficulty is compounded by the custom-san traditional medicine in the form of "potion" that consisted of various sections and types of plants and herbs are also not infrequently is accompanied by materials which bewrasal dri animals and minerals.
Based on test results of secondary metabolites and the traditional use of the 1125 collection of plant species, Prof. Dr. Dayar Arbain choose several types to be studied levels of the chemical. Dozens of research results have been published abroad, especially through the "Aust. J. Chem." in Australia and in several other journals. Some herbs that have been tested
Margarita indica in Sijunjung known Silalak Kulik, used as ingredients KB was found contain a fairly well-known group of alkaloids with biological activity "Alka-loida securinega", such as sekurinina, allosekurinina, fillantina, sekuritinina and some new alkaloids 15-L-metoksidihidrofil-lokrisinina , margaritarina and urinol A. Allosekurinina found active cause uterine contractions in mice.
Sapium baccatum in Baso-Bukittinggi used as a medicinal herb "asthma" was found to contain a new alkaloid, named bukittingina. This compound analgesic activity and smooth muscle contraction. Antidesma montana known Bonai area found to contain peptides DA DA 240-1 and 240-2. Antidesma tetrandra in Dareh River known as the Horn Bonai new peptides containing DA DA 599-1 and 599-2. Both types of bonai is traditionally used as a "hot drug". (Tarmizi, Panasea March 1993).
Rubiaceae family is quite famous, such as quinine, coffee, and other ipeka., It turns out quite a lot of its kind in Sumatra, and is not studied chemical constituents and biological activity. Cephaelis stipulaceae in Mount Sago known coffees and used as a cough medicine ingredient containing gramina with high levels. Lerchea bracleata at Anai used as a medicinal herb skin, containing new alkoloida lerkieina which proved active inhibit bacterial growth sta-pilococcus aureus. Uncaria glabrata in the orphanage as drug toxicity, contain a new alkaloid glycosides from glabratina a preliminary examination farmakologisnya activity memperli-hatkan real effects the central nervous system depression and other alkaloids that have been known unkarina and mitrafillina. One of the interesting genus of family Rubaceae special attention is ophiorrhiza, where one of this type, O. mungos which is a traditional Indian medicine proved active against viruses and tumors because of him alkakoida kamtotesina and 10-metoksikamptotesina. In Anai found O. discolor which turned out to contain tetrahidroalstoni-na move cause dilation of blood vessels of the brain. O. major alkaloid found containing a new type called ofiorrizina sinkonamina.
The following can be seen species, local names and places discovered, the chemical content and the usefulness or efficacy of medicinal plants of Sumatra that have been tested, including: O.cf.ferruginea contain dihidrosikloakogerina, mostuerina, isomelindina. O. filistipula in Lintau contain normalindina, 7-metoksikamtote-Sina, striktosidinat acid. Ophoriza x (not identified), on Mount Tandikat contain tetrahidroalstonina. Javanica Picrasma timber containing dehidrokrenatina Paik in Bukittinggi, krenatina, 8-hidroksidehidrokrenatina, 8-hidroksikrenatina, kuassinoida DA 230 and DA 230-Q1-Q2 for medicine and tonic skin diseases. Pellacalyx axillary Sikek-Sikek in Ulu Gadut contain sinna-moylnortropana. Rauwolfia sumatrana Goti in Pasaman timber containing 12-hydroxy-12-carboxylic akuamilan, leaves to cure fever. Chilocarpus denudatus contain desasetil pikralina, razinilam. Voacanga foetida contains vobtusina, vobtusina lactone, voakagina. Phoebe lanceolata contain nordisentrina family Lauraceae, disentrinona. Litsea elliptica in Payakumbuh contain retikulina, 10-undekene-2-on, tridekena-2-on repellent bedbugs. catinodaphne sesquipelaris contain aktino dafnina. catinodaphne glomerata contain aktino dafnina and listirenina. catinodaphne golara contain lastourvillina, flavinatina. Ardisia sumatrana contain pallidina, armepavina. Spilanthes spilantol ocimifolia containing insect repellent to clothing and books. Evodia cf. trichotama contain magnokuranina. Follow-up
Business drugs derived from plants is very large, reaching U.S. $ 57 billion per year (Lewis, 1991), while the profits flow back to the country of origin of plant-terse-but almost non-existent. It is also not uncommon that "steal" in a way that ordinary people pay to collect certain types of plants and then smuggled into their country to be studied.
Hopefully this particular plant Sumatra potential as a drug will be studied, learned and developed, both for the transfer of science and technology and economy and industry, so it looks obvious that tropical forests and biota of Sumatra, this is indeed the people of Sumatra in particular and Indonesia in general . (Tarmizi, B. Sc, S. Pd / State University of Padang)